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Lesson

Estoy Aquí: Music of the Chicano Movement
A People without a Place
Estoy Aquí: Music of the Chicano Movement / A People without a Place

After the Mexican-American War ended in 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo added 525,000 square miles to the United States territory (parts of modern-day Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming) and promised the large number of Mexican citizens who were living on that land at the time all rights and privileges afforded to American citizens . . . including the right to retain the property they owned. Unfortunately, in many cases, these promises were broken. Many Mexicans and Mexican Americans were pushed off their land and left without a “place” to call home. The music you will encounter in this lesson will teach more about the Chicana/o community’s ongoing struggle to reclaim their rightful “place” in American society.

Lesson Components & Learning Objectives

  1. We Shall Overcome/Nosotros Venceremos

    • Explain how “Nosotros Venceremos”/”We Shall Overcome” was translated adapted from a different context and became a powerful symbol of protest during the Chicano Movement.
    • Approx. 30 minutes
  2. Students in the Chicano Movement

    • Explain how “No Nos Moverán”/”We Shall Not Be Moved” was translated and adapted from a different context and became a powerful symbol of protest during the Chicano Movement.
    • Describe the contributions of young people (students) during the Chicano Movement.
    • Demonstrate the musical and expressive qualities of an effective protest song.
    • 30–45 minutes
  3. Creating a Protest Playlist

    • Create their own annotated “protest” playlist and will evaluate their chosen songs’ effectiveness as protest songs.
    • Approx. 30 minutes

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Bibliography

Text

Azcona, E. C. (2005). Rolas de Aztlán: Songs of the Chicano movement [Liner notes]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Díaz, E. (2020). Fifty years ago, fed up with city’s neglect, a San Diego community. Smithsonian Magazine.

Montoya, M. (2016). The Chicano movement for beginners. For Beginner Books.

Rodriguez, R. (2011). Imaginaries [Liner notes]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Rodriguez, R. (2016). Songs of struggle & hope [Liner notes]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Rosales, F. A. (1996). Chicano! The history of the Mexican American civil rights movement. Arte Publico Press.

Schippers, H. (2019). Connecting people, engaging communities. In The social power of music [Liner notes], p. 13–15. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Seeger, A. (2019). Songs of struggle. In The social power of music [Liner notes], p. 16–19. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Strachwitz, C. (1994). Corridos & tragedias de la frontera [Liner notes]. Arhoolie Records.

Audio

Moreno, J. (1999). El corrido de Gregorio Cortez [Song]. On El fidelero del valle [Album]. Arhoolie Records.

Los Pingüinos del Norte (2005). Gregorio Cortez [Song]. On Corridos de la frontera [Album]. Arhoolie Records.

Lira, A. (2016). Gregorio Cortez [Song]. On Songs of struggle and hope [Album]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Los Alacranes Mojados (2005). Chicano Park samba [Song]. On Rolas de Aztlán: Songs of the Chicano movement [Album]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Quetzal (2011). Estoy aquí [Song]. On Imaginaries [Album]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Video

Lira, A., & Alma (2016). “Quihubo, Raza” [Video], by Agustín Lira and Alma from Songs of struggle & hope. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Quetzal (2012). "Estoy aquí" [Video], by Quetzal at 2012 Smithsonian Folklife Festival. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Images

Freedman, J. (1968). Resurrection City: Untitled [Photograph]. Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC., 2017.81.8.

Rossin, R. (2013). Maya Angelou [Oil on canvas]. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Gift of the Andrew J. Young Foundation, NPG.2014.2.

Lawson, G. (2016). Songs of struggle and hope [Cover art]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Washington, DC. Photograph by Tom Pich, SFW40567

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848). In Perfected treaties, 1778–1945; Record Group 11 [Exchange copy]. General Records of the United States Government, 1778–1992, National Archives, Washington, DC.

United States Geographical Survey (2009). National atlas of the United States [Atlas]. In Wikimedia Commons.

Lewis, J. (1966). Agustín Lira [Photograph]. In Songs of struggle and hope [Liner notes], 2016, p. 18. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Washington, DC., SFW40567.

Unknown artist (n.d.). Courtroom [SVG file]. In Public Domain Vectors.

Martinez, E. (1967). Tierra o muerte [Screen print on manila folder]. Smithsonian American Art Museum. Gift of the artist, 1996.8.

Watkins, C. (1968). Justice is our need... [Poster]. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Associated institution: Southern Christian Leadership Conference, PL.279881.2g.

Enriquez, G. (2016). Rudolfo Anaya [Drawing]. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Commission made possible through the Smithsonian Latino Initiatives Pool, administered by the Smithsonian Latino Center, NPG.2016.100.

Sukanara (2011). Chicano power flag of Aztlán [Flag]. In Wikimedia Commons.

Unknown artist (ca. 1970s). Rodolfo Gonzales [Photograph]. Denver Public Library Special Collections, Denver, CO.

Unknown artist (ca. 1800s). Juan Nepomuceno Cortina [Portrait]. In Wikipedia.

Unknown artist (1901). Gregorio Cortez [Cabinet card]. Texas State Library and Archives Commission, Austin, TX.

Bueno, R. (ca. 1970). La tierra mia, Chicano Park [Logo]. In Wikipedia.

Unknown artist (n.d.) All the way to the bay mural in Chicano Park [Mural]. In Wikimedia commons. Photograph uploaded by Wikimedia user Rpotance.

Unknown artist (n.d.) Virgin of Guadalupe mural in Chicano Park [Mural]. In Wikimedia Commons. Photograh uploaded by Wikimedia user Rpotance.

Communication Visual (2005). Rolas of Aztlán: Songs of the Chicano movement[Cover art]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Washington, DC. Photograph courtesy of Los Alacranes Mojados, ca. 1978, SFW40516.

Unknown artist (n.d.) Zapata mural at Chicano Park [Mural]. In Wikimedia Commons. Photograph uploaded by Wikimedia user Rpotance.

Arreguin, A. (2006). The return to Aztlán [Oil on canvas]. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Gift of Felix Arreguin Velez and Catalina Toledo de Arreguin, NPG.2007.214.

Ramirez, M. (1975). Mayo march on University of Texas at Austin [Photograph]. In Rolas de Aztlán: Songs of the Chicano movement [Liner notes], 2005, p. 5. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Washington, DC., SFW40516..

Cross, B. (2011). Quetzal [Photograph]. In Imaginaries [Liner notes], p. 24. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Washington, DC., SFW40563.

Chamberlin, K. W., & Sheehy, D. (2011). Quetzal Flores [Photograph]. In The eternal getdown [Liner notes], p. 46. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Washington, DC, SFW40574.