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"Zumbaquezumba" by Grupo Cimarrón and Carlos Quintero at 2005 Smithsonian Folklife Festival

The joropo has two veins: the hard driving golpe, and the slower, more lyrical pasaje. Golpe (from golpear "to hit, to strike") refers to the percussive, strummed cuatro patterns. There are at least eighteen common types of golpe, each with its own name and distinctive sound. Golpes are played by instruments alone, or include singing. Widely dispersed throughout the Colombo-Venezuelan plains, the zumbaquezumba is the favorite golpe for dueling verse improvisation, popular at plains fiestas, festival competitions, and shows. Here, Grupo Cimarrón performs "Zumbaquezumba" (Resound, Resound) featuring Carlos Quintero on the harp.