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Lesson

Estoy Aquí: Music of the Chicano Movement
Tejano, Son Jarocho, and Other Modern Musical Fusions
Estoy Aquí: Music of the Chicano Movement / Tejano, Son Jarocho, and Other Modern Musical Fusions

Modern-day Chicana/o musicians often blend traditional Mexican musical styles with other musical influences such as rock, r&b, hip-hop, punk, cumbia (and more) to create musical fusions that are meaningful, powerful, and relevant. In this lesson, you will learn about the resurgence and evolution of tejano music in Texas and son jarocho in California – both during and after the Chicano movement. Tejano is a form of dance music that is characterized by a unique blend of European polka/accordion, Mexican instruments and song forms, and American influences. Son jarocho is a distinct musical genre that originated in in Veracruz, Mexico, in the 18th Century. At the end of this lesson, you can engage in artistic citizenship by creating musical fusions of your own.

Lesson Components & Learning Objectives

  1. California Son Jarocho

    • Identify the ways in which one modern-day Chican@ rock band (Quetzal) fuses different musical styles and perspectives to create their own unique sound.
    • Approx. 30 minutes
  2. The Evolution of Tejano

    • Describe the evolution of tejano music.
    • Approx. 30 minutes
  3. Artistic Citizenship . . . Chican@ Style!

    • Describe how the members of Quetzal engage in artistic citizenship.
    • Engage in artistic citizenship (through music).
    • Approx. 45 minutes

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Bibliography

Text

Balcomb, H. (2013). Quetzal: On their own terms. 2012 Smithsonian Folklife Festival Blog.

Elliott, D., Silverman, M., & Bowman, W. (2017). Artistic citizenship: Artistry, social responsibility, and ethical practice. Oxford University Press.

González, M. (2017). The inspiration for Quetzal’s “Pillow People”. Smithsonian Folklife Magazine.

Loza, S. (2019). Barrio harmonics: Essays on Chicano/Latino music. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center Press.

Peña, M. (1992). Tejano roots: Orquestas tejanas [Liner notes]. Arhoolie Records.

Rodriguez, R. (2011). Imaginaries [Liner notes]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Sheehy, D. (2003). La bamba: Sones jarochos from Veracruz [Liner notes]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Sheehy, D. (2009). Borders y bailes [Liner notes]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Sheehy, D. (2018). Cruzando borders[Liner notes]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Strachwitz, C. (1991). Tejano roots [Liner notes]. El Cerrito, CA: Arhoolie Records.

Strachwitz, C. (1993). Narciso Martinez: Father of the Texas-Mexican conjunto [Liner notes]. Arhoolie Records.

Turino, T. (2017). Music, social change, and alternative forms of citizenship. In D. Elliott, M. Silverman, & W. Bowman (Eds.). Artistic citizenship: Artistry, social responsibility, and ethical practice, (pp. 297–312). Oxford University Press.

Vargas, D. R. (2017). Eternal garden [Liner notes]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Smithsonian Folkways Recordings (n.d.). José Gutiérrez and Los Hermanos Ochoa: Sones jarochos from Veracruz. Explore: Artist Spotlight.

Unknown author (2009). Los Texmaniacs: Borders y bailes. Smithsonian Folkways Magazine.

Audio

Martínez, N. (1993). La cuquita [Song]. On Borderlands: From conjunto to chicken scratch[Album]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Beto Villa y su Orquesta (1991). Mi pecosita [Song]. On Tejano roots: Raices tejanas[Album]. Arhoolie Records.

Video

Gutiérrez, J., & Los Hermanos Ochoa (2010). Balajú [Video]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Boch, A. (2016). Sounds of Los Angeles: César Castro’s son jarocho [Video]. Smithsonian Folklife Festival.

Gutiérrez, J., & Los Hermanos Ochoa. (2010). La bamba [Video] from La bamba: Sones jarochos from Veracruz [Album]. Smithsonian Folklife Recordings.

Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian (2016). Día de los muertos/Day of the dead festival: Las Cafeteras [Video]. YouTube.

National Portrait Gallery (2014). Portrait in a minute: Selena [Video]. YouTube.

Quetzal (2018). Get to knowing [Video]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Quetzal (2017). Pillow people [Video]. In The inspiration for Quetzal’s “Pillow people” by M. González [Online Article]. Folklife Magazine.

Images

Castillo, M. (1988). Resisting cultural death: An affirmation of my past, from the National Chicano Screenprint Taller, 1988–89 [Screenprint]. Smithsonian American Art Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Gift of the Wight Art Gallery, University of California, Los Angeles. Printer: Self-Help Graphics & Art, Inc., 1991.65.2.

Unknown artist (1983). Chicanos in California [Screenprint on paper]. Smithsonian American Art Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Gift of Tomás Ybarra-Frausto, 1995.50.55.

Ballis, G. (1966). Dolores Huerta with children at UFW hall, late 1960s [Photograph]. Courtesy of TopFoto, ©1976 George Ballis/Take Stock/TopFoto.

Boch, A. (2016). César Castro overlooks El Sereno, CA. [Photograph]. Sounds of California, Smithsonian Folklife Festival.

Loza, S. (2019). Tradition, reinterpretation, innovation [Diagram]. In Barrio harmonics: Essays on Chicano/Latino music [Book], published by UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center Press, Los Angeles, CA. Courtesy of Steven Loza.

Cardenas, R. (ca. 2020). Las Cafeteras [Photograph]. Courtesy of Las Cafeteras.

Sheehy, D. (2003). Arpa jarocha, jarana jarocha, and requinto jarocho [Photograph]. In La bamba: Sones jarochos from Veracruz, by José Gutiérrez & Los Hermanos Ochoa [Liner notes], p. 1. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Washington, DC., SFW40505.

Cardenas, R. (ca. 2020). Las Cafeteras with instruments [Photograph]. Courtesy of Las Cafeteras.

JP (ca. 2020). Las Cafeteras next to car [Photograph]. Courtesy of Las Cafeteras.

Unknown artist (2012). Forever Texas flag and cotton coil single [Photogravure]. National Postal Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Copyright United States Postal Service. All rights reserved, 2012.2025.427.

Unknown artist (1947). Santiago Jimenez & sus Valedores - 1947 [Photograph]. In Don Santiago Jimenez: His first and last recordings [Liner notes], 1980, p. 2. Victor Studio, Arhoolie Records, El Cerrito, CA, ARH00507.

Unknown artist (ca. 1948). Narciso Martinez with Santiago Almeida [Photograph]. In Narciso Martinez: "Father of the Texas-Mexican conjunto" [Liner notes], 1993, p. 5. Arhoolie Records, El Cerrito, CA., ARH00361.

Sheehy, D. (ca. 2009). Los Texmaniacs [Photograph]. In Los Texmaniacs: Borders y bailes [Online article]. Smithsonian folkways magazine. Smithsonian Folkways Magazine, Summer 2009. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Washington, DC.

Cooley Design Lab (2018). Cruzando borders, by Los Texmaniacs [Cover art]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Washington, DC. Photograph by Michael G. Stewart, SFW40576.

Stewart, M. G. (2018). Josh Baca [Photograph]. In Cruzando borders, by Los Texmaniacs [Liner notes], p. 16. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Washington, DC., SFW40576.

Almazan, J. (1992). Tejano roots: Orquestas tejanas [Cover art]. Arhoolie Records, El Cerrito, CA., ARH00368.

Unknown artist (n.d.). Beto Villa’s orquesta [Photograph]. In Father of orquesta tejana: Tejano roots, vol. I[Liner notes], 2007, p. 6. Arhoolie Records, El Cerrito, CA., ARH09059.

Unknown artist [n.d.]. Beto Villa [Photograph]. In Tejano roots: The roots of tejano and conjunto music [Liner notes], 1991, p. 5. Arhoolie Records, El Cerrito, CA., ARH00341.

Tyler, R. (2017). Tejano music [Illustration]. In The Daily Texan [Newspaper]. Courtesy of Texas Student Media/the Daily Texan.

Yamaha Corporation (1986). Yamaha synthesizer [Musical instrument]. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Gift of Yamaha Corporation of America, 2000.0261.01.

Rendon, A. (1993). Selena [Gelatin silver print]. National Portrait Gallery. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Gift of Alfred and Elizabeth Rendon, NPG.2007.193.

Hernandez, M. (1996). Selena [Drawing on cotton (paño)]. Smithsonian American Art Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Gift of A. Rudy Padilla, The Hourglass Prison Art Museum, 1998.126.6.

North Beach (ca. 1990). Selena’s leather outfit [Garment]. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Gift of the Quintanilla family, 1999.0104.01.

Cross, B. (ca. 2011). Quetzal [Photograph]. In Imaginaries [Liner notes], p. 2. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Washington, DC., SFW40563.

Aguilar, P. (ca. 2016). Quetzal [Photograph]. Sounds of California, Smithsonian Folklife Festival. Courtesy of Quetzal.

Walker, K., & and Sheehy, D. (ca. 2017). Artistic citizenship [Photo collage]. In Eternal getdown, by Quetzal [Liner notes], p. 46. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Washington, DC., SFW40574.

Lee, R. (1939). Mexican women unloading truck at a spinach field [Photograph]. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. Photographs Division, Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black-and-White Negatives, LC-USF33-012038-M1.

Nadel, L. (1956). Braceros in pepper field [Photograph]. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC., 2004.0138.33.18.

Walker, K. W. (ca. 2015). Quetzal living room rehearsal [Photograph]. Sounds of California, Smithsonian Folklife festival. Courtesy of Quetzal.

Unknown artist (ca. 2010). How will you choose to participate? [Poster]. In Choosing to participate [Poster exhibition]. Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.