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Lesson

Tejano, Son Jarocho, and Other Modern Musical Fusions

Estoy Aquí: Music of the Chicano Movement / Tejano, Son Jarocho, and Other Modern Musical Fusions

Modern-day Chicana/o musicians often blend traditional Mexican musical styles with other musical influences such as rock, r&b, hip-hop, punk, cumbia (and more) to create musical fusions that are meaningful, powerful, and relevant. In this lesson, you will learn about the resurgence and evolution of tejano music in Texas and son jarocho in California – both during and after the Chicano movement. Tejano is a form of dance music that is characterized by a unique blend of European polka/accordion, Mexican instruments and song forms, and American influences. Son jarocho is a distinct musical genre that originated in in Veracruz, Mexico in the 18th Century. At the end of this lesson, you can engage in artistic citizenship by creating musical fusions of your own.

Lesson Components & Learning Objectives

  1. Son Jarocho in California

    • Identify the ways in which one contemporary Chican@ rock band (Quetzal) fuses different musical styles and perspectives to create their own unique sound.
    • Approx. 30 minutes
  2. The Evolution of Tejano Music

    • Describe the evolution of tejano music.
    • Approx. 30 minutes
  3. Artistic Citizenship . . . Chican@ Style!

    • Describe how the members of Quetzal engage in artistic citizenship.
    • Engage in artistic citizenship (through music).
    • Approx. 45 minutes

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Less -

Bibliography

Text

Balcomb, H. (2013). Quetzal: On their own terms. 2012 Smithsonian Folklife Festival Blog.

Elliott, D., Silverman, M., & Bowman, W. (2017). Artistic citizenship: Artistry, social responsibility, and ethical practice. Oxford University Press.

González, M. (2017). The inspiration for Quetzal’s “Pillow People”. Smithsonian Folklife Magazine.

Loza, S. (2019). Barrio harmonics: Essays on Chicano/Latino music. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center Press.

Peña, M. (1992). Tejano roots: Orquestas tejanas [Liner notes]. Arhoolie Records.

Rodriguez, R. (2011). Imaginaries [Liner notes]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Sheehy, D. (2003). La bamba: Sones jarochos from Veracruz [Liner notes]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Sheehy, D. (2009). Borders y bailes [Liner notes]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Sheehy, D. (2018). Cruzando borders[Liner notes]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Smithsonian Folkways Recordings (n.d.). José Gutiérrez and Los Hermanos Ochoa: Sones jarochos from Veracruz. Explore: Artist Spotlight.

Strachwitz, C. (1991). Tejano roots [Liner notes]. El Cerrito, CA: Arhoolie Records.

Strachwitz, C. (1993). Narciso Martinez: Father of the Texas-Mexican conjunto [Liner notes]. Arhoolie Records.

Turino, T. (2017). Music, social change, and alternative forms of citizenship. In D. Elliott, M. Silverman, & W. Bowman (Eds.). Artistic citizenship: Artistry, social responsibility, and ethical practice, (pp. 297–312). Oxford University Press.

Vargas, D. R. (2017). The eternal getdown, by Quetzal [Liner notes]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Unknown author (2009). Los Texmaniacs: Borders y bailes. Smithsonian Folkways Magazine.

Audio*

Martínez, N. (1991). La cuquita [Audio recording]. On Tejano roots/Raices tejanas [Album]. Arhoolie Records.

Beto Villa y su Orquesta (1991). Mi pecosita [Audio recording]. On Tejano roots/Raices tejanas [Album]. Arhoolie Records.

Video*

Gutiérrez, J., & Los Hermanos Ochoa (2010). Balajú [Video]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings. Recorded at the 2004 Smithsonian Folklife Festival.

Boch, A. (2016). Sounds of Los Angeles: César Castro’s son jarocho [Video]. In 2016 Smithsonian Folklife Festival: Sounds of California [Festival blog]. Featuring César Castro.

Gutiérrez, J., & Los Hermanos Ochoa. (2005). La bamba [Video]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings. Recorded at the 2004 Smithsonian Folklife Festival.

Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian (2016). Día de los muertos/Day of the dead festival: Las Cafeteras [Video]. YouTube.

National Portrait Gallery (2014). Portrait in a minute: Selena [Video]. YouTube. Narrated by Alina Collins Maldonado.

Los Texmaniacs (2018). Mexico Americano [Video]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Quetzal (2018). Get to knowing [Video]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Quetzal (2017). Pillow people [Video]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings

Images*

Sheehy, D. (ca. 2009). Los Teximaniacs [Photograph]. In Los Teximaniacs: Borders y bailes [Online article]. Smithsonian Folkways Magazine, Summer 2009. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Washington, DC.

Castillo, M. (1988). Resistance to cultural death - an affirmation of my past [Screenprint]. Smithsonian American Art Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. From the National Chicano Screenprint Taller, 1988–89. Gift of the Wight Art Gallery, University of California, Los Angeles. Printer: Self-Help Graphics & Art, Inc., 1991.65.2.

Unknown artist (1983). Chicanos in California [Screenprint on paper]. Smithsonian American Art Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Gift of Tomás Ybarra-Frausto, 1995.50.55.

Boch, A. (2016). Musician César Castro overlooks El Sereno, CA. [Video still]. In Sounds of Los Angeles: César Castro's son jarocho [Online article], by Akira Boch. Smithsonian Folklife Festival Blog, 2016: Sounds of California. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

Loza, S. (2019). Son jarocho: A living tradition [Diagram]. In Barrio harmonics: Essays on Chicano/Latino music [Book], p. 83. UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center Press, Los Angeles, CA. Courtesy of Steven Loza.

Cardenas, R. (ca. 2020). Las Cafeteras (in the garden) [Photograph]. Courtesy of Las Cafeteras.

Sheehy, D. (2003). José Gutiérrez and Los Hermanos Ochoa [Photograph]. In La bamba: Sones jarochos from Veracruz, by José Gutiérrez & Los Hermanos Ochoa [Liner notes], p. 1. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Washington, DC., SFW40505.

Cardenas, R. (ca. 2020). Las Cafeteras with instruments (lámina) [Photograph]. Courtesy of Las Cafeteras.

JP (ca. 2020). Las Cafeteras (low rider) [Photograph]. Courtesy of Las Cafeteras.

Unknown artist (2012). Forever Texas flag and cotton coil single [Photogravure]. National Postal Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Copyright United States Postal Service. All rights reserved, 2012.2025.427.

Unknown artist (1947). Santiago Jimenez & sus Valedores - 1947 [Photograph]. In Don Santiago Jimenez: His first and last recordings [Liner notes], edited by Chris Strachwitz, 1994, p. 2. Arhoolie Records, El Cerrito, CA. Promotional photo by Ideal Records, ARH00414.

Unknown artist (ca. 1948). Narciso Martinez with Santiago Almeida [Photograph]. In Narciso Martinez: Father of the Texas-Mexican conjunto [Liner notes], edited by Chris Strachwitz, 1993, p. 5. Arhoolie Records, El Cerrito, CA. Promotional photo for Ideal Records, ARH00361.

Cooley Design Lab. (2018). Los Texmaniacs; Cruzando borders [Cover art]. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Washington, DC. Photograph by Michael G. Stewart, SFW40576.

Stewart, M. G. (2018). Josh Baca [Photograph]. In Los Texmaniacs: Cruzando borders [Liner notes], p. 16. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Washington, DC, SFW40576.

Almazán, J. (1992). Tejano roots: Orquestas tejanas [Cover art]. Arhoolie Records, El Cerrito, CA. Album design by Wayne Pope, ARH00368.

Unknown artist (1948–1954). Beto Villa’s orquesta tejana [Photograph]. In Father of orquesta tejana, vol. I [Liner notes], edited by Manuel Peña and Chris Strachwitz, 2007, p. 6–7. Arhoolie Records, El Cerrito, CA. Promotional photo by Ideal Records, ARH09059.

Unknown artist. (n.d.). Beto Villa [Photograph]. In Tejano roots/Raices tejanas [Liner notes], edited by Chris Strachwitz, 1991, p. 5. Arhoolie Records, El Cerrito, CA. Promotional photo by Ideal Records, ARH00341.

Tyler, R. (2017). Modern Tejano band [Illustration]. In Five relatives, influence of modern Tejano music [Online article], by Lisette Oler. The Daily Texan, Austin, TX. Courtesy of Texas Student Media/the Daily Texan.

Yamaha Corporation (1986). Synthesizer [Musical instrument]. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Gift of Yamaha Corporation of America, 2000.0261.01.

Rendon, A. (1993). Selena [Gelatin silver print]. National Portrait Gallery. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Gift of Alfred and Elizabeth Rendon, NPG.2007.193.

Hernandez, M.M. (1996). Selena paño [Drawing on cotton]. Smithsonian American Art Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Gift of A. Rudy Padilla, The Hourglass Prison Art Museum, 1998.126.6.

North Beach (ca. 1990). Selena’s leather outfit [Garment]. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Gift of the Quintanilla family, 1999.0104.01.

Aguilar, P. (ca. 2016). Quetzal (tintype) [Photograph]. In Artist Profiles: Quetzal [Web page]. Smithsonian Folklife Festival 2016: Sounds of California. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Courtesy of Quetzal.

Cross, B. (ca. 2011). Quetzal (Imaginaries) [Photograph]. In Imaginaries [Liner notes], edited by R. Rodriguez, p. 2. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Washington, DC., SFW40563.

Walker Chamberlin, K., & and Sheehy, D. (ca. 2017). Quetzal collage [Photo collage]. In Eternal getdown, by Quetzal [Liner notes], p. 46. Design and layout by Krystyn MacGregor. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Washington, DC., SFW40574.

Walker Chamberlin, K. (ca. 2015). Quetzal living room rehearsal [Photograph]. In Artist profiles: Quetzal [Web page]. Smithsonian Folklife Festival 2016: Sounds of California. Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Courtesy of Quetzal.

Lee, R. (1939). Migrant workers unloading truck [Photograph]. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC. Prints & Photographs Division, Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black-and-White Negatives, LC-USF33-012038-M1.

Nadel, L. (1956). Migrant workers in pepper field [Photograph]. National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC., 2004.0138.33.18.

Unknown artist (ca. 2010). How will you choose to participate? [Poster]. In Choosing to participate [Poster exhibition]. Facing Ourselves and History, Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

*Audio, video, and images listed in order of appearance in slideshow